# Lab 111 projectile motion

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Blast a car out of a cannon, and challenge yourself to hit a target! Learn about projectile motion by firing various objects. Set parameters such as angle, initial speed, and mass. Explore vector representations, and add air resistance to investigate the factors that influence drag. Browse legacy activities. Share an Activity! Translate this Sim.

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Original Sim and Translations About. Sample Learning Goals Determine how each parameter initial height, initial angle, initial speed, mass, diameter, and altitude affects the trajectory of an object, with and without air resistance. Estimate where an object will land, given its initial conditions. Determine that the x and y motion of a projectile are independent. Investigate the variables that affect the drag force.

Describe the the effect that the drag force has on the velocity and acceleration. Discuss projectile motion using common vocabulary such as: launch angle, initial speed, initial height, range, time. For Teachers. Teacher Tips Overview of sim controls, model simplifications, and insights into student thinking PDF.

Please sign in to watch the video primer. Related Simulations. The Moving Man. Software Requirements. Offline Access Help Center Contact. Source Code Licensing For Translators. Some rights reserved.In this lab, we will measure the horizontal distance which a projectile travels after being launched with an initial horizontal velocity. Place your ramp so that the front edge of the platform lines up with the edge of the table so that when the ball rolls off the ramp, it goes straight off the edge.

Clamp it down so that the position is fixed. Hang the paper clip from the end of the ramp. Ensure that it is not resting on the floor, but instead hanging a short distance a cm or two above it.

This gives you a purely-vertical line from the bottom of the ramp to the floor directly below which will allow us to measure horizontal distance precisely. This setup of having a hanging mass to show you a vertical line is called a plumb bob. Place the ball right at the end of the ramp you may have to hold it there. Next, set up your photogate.

Mount it onto the stand at the side of the ramp, and ensure that the beam crosses that track at approximately the center of the ball when the ball is placed at the relevant position. On the computer, open "Projectile Motion" in the folder with LoggerPro files ; click "Connect" on the box that pops up.

Click the green "Start Collection" button at the top of the screen to start "recording" the output of the photogate. Roll the ball down the hill and ensure that it shows two times: one at which the ball entered the photogate, and one at which the ball left it. If so, press "Stop Collection" same button 1 - everything is set up correctly, and you can move on to the next part. If not, consult your TA. Velocity is change in position over change in time, so we need to determine first how far the ball will move when it crosses the photogate.

If the photogate were exactly halfway down the ball, then this distance would be the diameter of the ball. However, we cannot rely on that assumption. To do this, we will use the screw on the base of the platform, which will slowly move the photogate back and forth.

Each turn of the screw will move the photogate some known distance. Therefore, we will determine how many turns of the screw it takes for the photogate to move across the ball, and thereby determine the effective diameter. First, take note of the pitch of the screw. This is the distance the photogate will travel per turn. Record this distance on your data sheet there is a drop-down. Then, turn the screw until the photogate beam is a few turns past the end of your ball. Now, turn back the other way, slowly.

Once the photogate turns from "unblocked" light off to "blocked" light onstart counting the number of turns. Count until it reads "unblocked" light off again.

This is how many turns it took the photogate to pass your ball. Estimate an uncertainty in how many turns it took to complete this process, as well. Is a quarter-turn reasonable? Multiply the number of turns by the pitch of the screw to get your effective diameter.Projectile Motion Introduction In this lab you will study the motion of a freely-falling projectile, namely a small plastic sphere. Projectile motion, for our purposes, is the motion of an object that has been launched and then is subject to only the force of gravity and the force of air friction.

The Newtonian mechanics principles that you have been studying allow you to predict this type of motion quite well. You will perform two experiments to aid your understanding of these principles, which will be described later in the lab. Since there is the small but real possibility of causing injury to yourself or another person, please follow all safety guidelines and common sense safety rules.

Time-of-flight vs. Initial Velocity The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the time-of-flight of a ball launched horizontally off the table varies as the initial velocity is varied.

## Projectile Motion

A ball launched horizontally from a table of height h has no initial velocity in the vertical direction, so the ball should take the same amount of time to reach the ground as a ball that drops from rest from the same height. Caution: Safety glasses must be worn during this experiment. Caution: When the projectile launcher is loaded, a yellow indicator is visible in one of the range slots in the side of the barrel and the ball is visible in another one of the slots in the side of the barrel.

To check to see if the launcher is loaded, always check the side of the barrel.The purpose of this lab is to study projectile motion of an object that is launched horizontally and drops a certain height before it hits the ground. This experiment presents an opportunity to study motion in two dimensions.

Derive this result for yourself using 2D kinematics and include the derivation in your lab report! The following are important preliminary steps before collecting data:. Warning: Do not shift the position of the paper on the floor until you are finished with all trials at a given release-height of the ball along the ramp!

Also, do not confuse the mark on the white paper from one trial with the marks from other trials! To prevent this, number each mark on the paper with its trial number after you measure the distance traveled.

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You will use two approaches to do this, plotting both by hand and by using a computer program. When you make a graph by hand, you should always use graph paper. Draw and clearly label the horizontal and vertical axes, and choose a suitable scale for each, given the range of your data values. Remember that there may be significant uncertainty in both quantities. In some cases, the uncertainty in one quantity will be very small relative to the scale of the graph, and you may omit them.

Next, you must determine a line of best fit to your data, and calculate its slope value.

Then, you need to draw in the lines with the maximum and minimum slope that still fall within the error bars of your data points. The slopes of these lines will allow you estimate your uncertainty in the slope value.

This constraint significantly reduces the overall uncertainty in the slope value. While it is important to know how to plot data by hand, in practice physicists typically use a computer program to plot data.

You can use the Plotting Tool provided for this. The plotting tool program automatically does a linear fit to your data, and also provides the slope estimate and its uncertainty. After completing both plotting methods, the hand-written plot and a print-out of the computer-generated plot should both be included in your lab report.

### Pojectile Motion

Unfortunately, there is no printer in the lab room or in the Physics Help Room, but the plotting tool allows you to send your graph to your email account to print out or copy directly into your report later. We can re-write this equation as:. What sources of error may have impacted your results? What other trends might we be able to study using a similar apparatus? User Tools Register Login.

Site Tools. Determine experimentally the relationship between horizontal distance and velocity.You actually have excellent writings. Thanks a bunch for sharing your web site. Jorcel www. Do you know your hidden name meaning? Click here to find your hidden name meaning.

Monday, October 17, Lab Report 1. Rodney Garland. Introduction. This lab entertained the idea of projectile motion and how, at different maximum heights and velocities, an object can fly shorter or farther distances.

The point of the lab was to find the initial velocity of the projectile launched, as well as the final distance it reached. Topics and ideas that were key to this experiment include: normal force, air resistance, the work energy principle, the momentum priciple, and the idea of uncertainty. Procedure. The first step was to set up the launcher at an angle of 0 degrees. A ball of mass m was then loaded into the cannon and pushed back until one click was heard.

The reason behind stopping at one click, is that two or more clicks may add too much power to the shot, sending the ball on a dangerous path of destruction. After prepping the launcher, two meter sticks were obtained and laid flat on the ground, end to end.

The meter sticks were then kept in place by use of duct tape. Once the meter sticks were locked into place, two sheets of paper were placed on the ground in places where the ball was thought to land after launch. Finally, the pieces of paper were overlayed by pieces of carbon paper to allow the shots to be measured after impact.

The second part of the experiment was just a repeat of the first, except the launcher was set at an angle of 30 degrees. Data Collection. Constants —. Initial Height — 1. Mass of Ball — m. Gravity — 9.

## Projectile Motion

Data Modeling. As previously stated, the point of the lab was to find the initial velocity of the projectile after launch. Once the data was collected, either the work energy principle or the momentum principle can be used to figure this out. The Work Energy Approach:. So, what do we know? Well, we know that the work energy principle states that. With this in mind, we also know that. And now, the only thing left to find would be our velocity. The Momentum Approach :. If the work energy principle isn't working out, this would be your other option.

The question here is the same as before, "What do we know? In this example, we have these variables on hand.Projectile motion is the motion of an object thrown or projected into the air, subject to only the acceleration of gravity. The object is called a projectileand its path is called its trajectory. The motion of falling objects, as covered in Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics, is a simple one-dimensional type of projectile motion in which there is no horizontal movement.

The most important fact to remember here is that motions along perpendicular axes are independent and thus can be analyzed separately. This fact was discussed in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introductionwhere vertical and horizontal motions were seen to be independent.

The key to analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion is to break it into two motions, one along the horizontal axis and the other along the vertical. This choice of axes is the most sensible, because acceleration due to gravity is vertical—thus, there will be no acceleration along the horizontal axis when air resistance is negligible. As is customary, we call the horizontal axis the x -axis and the vertical axis the y -axis. The magnitudes of these vectors are sxand y.

Note that in the last section we used the notation A to represent a vector with components A x and A y. If we continued this format, we would call displacement s with components s x and s y. However, to simplify the notation, we will simply represent the component vectors as x and y. Of course, to describe motion we must deal with velocity and acceleration, as well as with displacement. We must find their components along the x — and y -axes, too. We will assume all forces except gravity such as air resistance and friction, for example are negligible.

Note that this definition assumes that the upwards direction is defined as the positive direction. If you arrange the coordinate system instead such that the downwards direction is positive, then acceleration due to gravity takes a positive value. Both accelerations are constant, so the kinematic equations can be used. Figure 1. The total displacement s of a soccer ball at a point along its path. The vector s has components x and y along the horizontal and vertical axes.

Step 1. Resolve or break the motion into horizontal and vertical components along the x- and y-axes. The magnitude of the components of displacement s along these axes are x and y. Initial values are denoted with a subscript 0, as usual. Step 2. Treat the motion as two independent one-dimensional motions, one horizontal and the other vertical. The kinematic equations for horizontal and vertical motion take the following forms:.Thursday, October 20, Projectile lab.

When you throw a ball, the ball tends to be in motion. Such motion is called projectile motion. The purpose of this lab is to study projectile motion and its properties. The experiment is done to measure the distance that the ball will travel when it is shot from the spring gun. For this purpose, we mounted a gun on the table and clamp it.

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We determine the vertical distance from the ground to the gun. We found out that the distance was 1. We put paper at some horizontal distance from the table where the gun was leveled. We made sure all the screws and clamps were tight. We adjust the pointer so that it indicates 0 degree. Then we shot the plastic ball from the spring gun.

The ball hits the paper. We shot the ball ten times and we measure the distance between the spring gun and the paper. For the experiment we used spring gun but the basic setup of the experiment looks like the figure. After the ball is fired then the ball is in motion. At that time the force acting on it is gravity mg where m is the mass of the ball and gravity is the horizontal force.

So, we can write.

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There is no force acting on X-direction. So, the only force acting on it is vertical force. To find the final distance it travelled, we used kinematic equations. For X-direction where there is no acceleration.

The horizontal and vertical motion is independent of each other except that they have common time.